** οὗτος**, αὕτη, τοῦτο,

*genitive* τούτου, ταύτης, τούτου, etc: the dual

*feminine* never in

*Attic dialect*, see ὁ, ἡ, τό, [near the start]:—

*demonstrative* *pronoun*,

**this**, common from [

Refs 8th c.BC+]

** A**) ORIGIN and FORMS: οὗτος, αὕτη, τοῦτο probably arose from a reduplication of the

*demonstrative* ὁ, ἡ, τό with insertion of -υ- (= Sanskrit Particle

**u**), e.g. ταῦτα from τα-υ-τα:

*Doric dialect* *genitive* *singular* *feminine* τούτας [

Refs 5th c.BC+], etc, the latter is uncertain in [

Refs 5th c.BC+], as

*genitive* *singular* *neuter* οὕτω [

Refs 3rd c.BC+];

*accusative* *singular* *feminine* οὕταν [

Refs 6th c.BC+] —In _Attic dialect_ οὗτος was frequently strengthened by the _demonstrative_ -ί, οὑτοσί, αὑτηί, τουτί, _genitive_ τουτουί, _dative_ τουτῳί, _accusative_ τουτονί;

*plural* *nominative* οὑτοιί,

*neuter* ταυτί, etc,

**this man here**: sometimes a Particle is inserted between the

*pronoun* and -ί, as αὑτηγί for αὑτηί γε, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; τουτογί for τουτί γε, [

Refs]; ταυταγί for ταυτί γε, [

Refs]; τουτοδί for τουτὶ δέ, [

Refs]; τουτουμενί for τουτουὶ μέν, [

Refs] —In codices the ν ἐφελκυστικόν is sometimes added in the forms οὑτοσίν, οὑτωσίν, and οὑτοσίν is said to be

*Attic dialect* by [

Refs 2nd c.AD+]. [This ι is always long, and a long vowel or diphthong before it becomes short, as αὑτη?~Xί, τουτω?~Xί, οὑτοῐί, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** B**) USAGE in regard to CONCOR[

Refs 4th c.BC+] is frequently used as a

*pronoun* *substantive*: hence

*neuter* is followed by

*genitive*, κατὰ τοῦτο τῆς ἀκροπόλιος [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

*adjective*, in which case its

*substantive* commonly takes the

*Article*, οὗτος ὁ ἀνήρ or ὁ ἀνὴρ οὗτος.—But the

*Article* is absent,

** B.1**) always in

*Epic dialect* Poets (except [

Refs 8th c.BC+]: sometimes also in Trag, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** B.2**) sometimes when the Noun is so specified that the

*Article* is not needed, ἐς γῆν ταύτην, ἥντινα νῦν Σκύθαι νέμονται [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** B.3**) when οὗτος is used in local sense,

**here**, see below with [

Refs]

** B.4**) when the Noun with which οὗτος agrees stands as its Predicate, αὕτη γὰρ ἦν σοι πρόφασις [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; δικαστοῦ αὕτη ἀρετή [ἐστι] [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

**these** were the grievances which already existed, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; ταύτην φήμην παρέδοσαν

**this** was the report which, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

**this** was notably the greatest movement which, [

NT+5th c.BC+]

** B.5**) when

*3rd pers.* is used for

*2nd pers.* to express contempt, οὗτος ἀνήρ, οὑτοσὶ ἀνήρ, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** B.II**) though οὗτος usually agrees with the Noun that serves as Predicate, it is not rare to find it in the

*neuter*, μανία δὲ καὶ τοῦτ᾽ ἐστί [

Refs 5th c.BC+]: and in

*plural*, οὐκ ἔστι ταῦτα ἀρχή [

Refs 4th c.BC+]: so with an explanatory clause added, τοῦτο γάρ ἐστιν ὁ συκοφάντης, αἰτιᾶσθαι μὲν πάντα ἐξελέγξαι δὲ μηδέν [

Refs 4th c.BC+]

** B.II.2**) so also with a Noun in apposition, τούτοισιν μὲν ταῦτα μέλει, κίθαρις καὶ ἀοιδή [

Refs 8th c.BC+]

** B.II.3**) the

*neuter* also may refer to a

*masculine* or

*feminine* Noun, καρπὸν φορέει κυάμῳ ἴσον: τοῦτο ἐπεὰν γένηται πέπον κτλ. [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** B.II.4**) the

*neuter* is also used of classes of persons, μελιτοπῶλαι καὶ τυροπῶλαι: τοῦτο δ᾽ εἰς ἕν ἐστι συγκεκυφός [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; or of an abstract fact, οὐκ Ἰοφῶν ζ;—τοῦτο γάρ τοι καὶ μόνον ἔτ᾽ ἐστὶ λοιπὸν ἀγαθόν [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** B.III**) with Prons,

** B.III.1**) personal, οὗτος σύ, in local sense, see below

** B.III.2**)

*interrogative*, τί τοῦτ᾽ ἔλεξα; what is

**this that?** [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; ποίοισι τούτοι; for ποῖά ἐστι ταῦτα οἷς [ἔχεις ἐλπίδα]

**;** [

Refs]; Νέστορ᾽ ἔρειο ὅν τινα τοῦτον ἄγει whom he brings

**here**, [

Refs 8th c.BC+]

** B.III.3**) with οἷος, [

Refs 8th c.BC+]

** B.III.4**)

*possessive*, πατὴρ σὸς οὗτος

**this** father of thine, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** B.III.5**)

*demonstrative*, οὗτος ἐκεῖνος, τὸν σὺ ζητέεις, where ἐκεῖνος is the Predicate, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; τοῦτον τὸν αὐτὸν ἄνδρα

**this** same man, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** B.III.5.b**) exceptionally, Διφίλου οὗτος ὅδ᾽ ἐστὶ τύπος [

Refs]

** B.III.6**) ἄλλος τις οὗτος ἀνέστη another man

**here**, [

Refs 8th c.BC+]

** B.IV**) with Numerals, τέθνηκε ταῦτα τρία ἔτη

**these** three years, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; [στρατείαν] ἑνδέκατον μῆνα τουτονὶ ποιεῖται for

**these** eleven months, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** C**) SIGNIFICATION AND SPECIAL IDIOMS:

** C.I**)

**this**, to designate

**the nearer**, opposed to ἐκεῖνος,

**that, the more remote**, ταῦτα, like τὰ ἐνταῦθα,

**things round and about us, earthly things**, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; compare ὅδε [near the start]: but οὗτος sometimes indicates that which is not really nearest, but most important, δεῖ. τὸ βέλτιστον ἀεί, μὴ τὸ ῥᾷστον λέγειν: ἐπὶ ἐκεῖνο μὲν γὰρ ἡ φύσις αὐτὴ βαδιεῖται, ἐπὶ τοῦτο δὲ κτλ. [

Refs 4th c.BC+]

** C.I.2**) when, of two things, one precedes and the other follows, ὅδε properly refers to what follows, οὗτος to what precedes, οὐκ ἔστι σοι ταῦτ᾽, ἀλλά σοι τάδ᾽ ἔστι [

Refs 5th c.BC+] refers to what follows, [

Refs 8th c.BC+]; οὔκουν. τοῦτο γιγνώσκεις, ὅτι; [

Refs 4th c.BC+]

** C.I.3**) οὗτος is used

*emphatic*, generally in contempt, while ἐκεῖνος denotes praise, ὁ πάντ᾽ ἄναλκις οὗτος, i.e. Aegisthus, [

Refs 5th c.BC+] of Philip; but οὗτος is used of Philip, [

Refs 4th c.BC+]

** C.I.3.b**) of what is familiar, τούτους τοὺς πολυτελεῖς χιτῶνας, of the Persians, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; τὸ θυλακῶδες τοῦτο the

**familiar** bag-like thing, [

Refs 4th c.BC+]

** C.I.4**) in

*Attic dialect* law-language, οὗτος is commonly applied to

**the opponent**, whether plaintiff (as in [

Refs 4th c.BC+] or defendant (as in [

Refs]; so, in the political speeches of [

Refs 4th c.BC+] are

**the opposite party**, [

Refs], etc; but in the forensic speeches, οὗτοι frequently means

**the judges, the court**, [

Refs]

** C.I.5**) much like an

*adverb*, in local sense (compare ὅδε [near the start]), τίς δ᾽ οὗτος κατὰ νῆας. ἔρχεα; who art thou

**here** that comest? [

Refs 8th c.BC+]; frequently in

*Attic dialect*, τίς οὑτοσ; who's this

**here?** [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; πολλὰ ὁρῶ ταῦτα πρόβατα I see many sheep

**here**, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

**ho** you! you

**there!** [

Refs 5th c.BC+]: with a

*proper name*, ὦ οὗτος, Αἴας [

Refs 5th c.BC+] —This phrase mostly implies anger, impatience, or scorn.

** C.II**) simply as antecedent to ὅς, [

Refs 8th c.BC+]

** C.III**) = τοιοῦτος, οὗτος ἐγὼ ταχυτᾶτι [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** C.IV**) after a parenthesis, the Subject, though already named, is frequently

*emphatic* repeated by οὗτος, οὐδὲ γὰρ οὐδὲ Ἀριστέης, οὐδὲ οὗτος προσωτέρω. ἔφησε ἀπικέσθαι [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** C.V**) καὶ οὗτος is added to heighten the force of a previous word, ξυνεστῶτες. ναυτικῷ ἀγῶνι, καὶ τούτῳ πρὸς Ἀθηναίους [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; see infr. VIII.2.

** C.VI**) repeated, where for the second we should merely say

**he** or

**it**, τοῖσιν τούτου τοῦτον μέλεσιν. κελαδοῦντες [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** C.VII**) ταῦτα is used in some special phrases,

** C.VII.1**) ταῦτ᾽, ὦ δέσποτα

**yes** Sir (i. e. ἔστι ταῦτα, ταῦτα δράσω, etc.), [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; so also ἦν ταῦτα

**even so, true**, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** C.VII.2**) ταῦτα μὲν δὴ ὑπάρξει

**so** it shall be, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** C.VII.3**) καὶ ταῦτα μὲν δὴ ταῦτα so much for

**that**, frequently in

*Attic dialect*, as [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** C.VII.4**) ταῦτα at end of a formula in epitaphs, etc, probably short for ταῦτα οὕτως ἔχει or ὁ βίος ταῦτά ἐστιν, e.g. οὐδὶς (= -εὶς) ἀθάνατος: ταῦτα [

Refs 2nd c.AD+]

** C.VIII**) Adverbial usages:

** C.VIII.1**) ταῦτα

*absolutely*,

**therefore, that is why**, [

Refs 8th c.BC+]; αὐτὰ ταῦτα ἥκω, ἵνα. [

Refs 5th c.BC+] is rare in this sense, τοῦτ᾽ ἀφικόμην, ὅπως. εὖ πράξαιμί τι [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; αὐτὸ γὰρ τοῦτο

**just because of this**, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** C.VIII.1.b**) πρὸς ταῦτα

**so then, therefore**, properly used in indignant defiance, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** C.VIII.2**) καὶ ταῦτα, adding a circumstance heightening the force of what has been said,

**and that**, ἄνδρα γενναῖον θανεῖν, καὶ ταῦτα πρὸς γυναικός [

Refs 4th c.BC+]: but mostly with a

*participle*, ὅς γ᾽ ἐξέλυσας ἄστυ, καὶ ταῦθ᾽ ὑφ᾽ ἡμῶν οὐδὲν ἐξειδὼς πλέον [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; or with a

*participle* omitted, ἥτις. τὴν τεκοῦσαν ὕβρισεν, καὶ ταῦτα τηλικοῦτος (i.e. οὖσα) [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** C.VIII.2.b**) καὶ ταῦτα

**anyhow, no matter what happens** (or

**happened**), ἐπεχείρησας, οὐδὲν ὢν καὶ ταῦτα you tried, but were no good

**anyhow**, i.e. try as you might, [

Refs 4th c.BC+]

** C.VIII.3**) τοῦτο μέν, τοῦτο δέ.

**on the one hand, on the other, partly, partly**, very frequently in [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; τοῦτο μέν is sometimes answered by δέ only,[

Refs 5th c.BC+]; by δὲ αὖ, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; by ἔπειτα δέ, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; by ἀλλά, [

Refs 4th c.BC+]; by εἶτα, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; by τοῦτ᾽ αὖθις, [

Refs]

** C.VIII.4**)

*dative* *feminine* ταύτῃ,

** C.VIII.4.a**)

**on this spot, here**, ταύτῃ μὲν, τῇδε δ᾽ αὖ. [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** C.VIII.4.b**)

**in this point, herein**, μηδὲν ταύτῃ γε κομήσῃς [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** C.VIII.4.c**)

**in this way, thus**, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; to ὅπῃ, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; ταύτῃ καλεῖσθαι, etc, like οὕτω κ, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** C.VIII.5**) ἐκ τούτου or τούτων

**thereupon**, [

Refs 5th c.BC+];

**therefore**, [

Refs]

** C.VIII.6**) ἐν τούτῳ

**in that case**, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** C.VIII.6.b**)

**in the meantime**, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** C.VIII.7**) πρὸς τούτοις (-οισι)

**besides**, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]