** μέν**, Particle, used partly to express certainty on the part of the speaker or writer; partly, and more commonly, to point out that the word or clause with which it stands is correlative to another word or clause that is to follow, the latter word or clause being introduced by δέ.

** A**)

** A.I**) μέν used absolutely to express certainty, not followed by correlative δέ,

**indeed, of a truth**, synonymous with μήν, as appears from the

*Epic dialect* and

*Ionic dialect* form ἦ μέν in protestations and oaths (where

*Attic dialect* used ἦ μήν), καί μοι ὄμοσσον, ἦ μ. μοι πρόφρων ἔπεσιν καὶ χερσὶν ἀρήξειν [

Refs 8th c.BC+]: also in Trag, ἀκτὴ μὲν ἥδε τῆς περιρρύτου χθονός [

Refs 8th c.BC+]; γε μέν, compare γε [

Refs]

** A.I.2**) an answering clause with δέ is sometimes implied, τὴν μὲν ἐγὼ σπουδῇ δάμνημ᾽ ἐπέεσσι her can I hardly subdue, [

**but** all others easily], [

Refs 8th c.BC+]; ὡς μὲν λέγουσι as

**indeed** they say, [

**but** as I believe not], [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; καὶ πρῶτον μὲν ἦν αὐτῷ πόλεμος (with no ἔπειτα δέ to follow), [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; so νῦν μέν σ᾽ ἀφήσω I will let you go

**this time**, [

Refs 3rd c.BC+]: to give force to assertions made by a person respecting himself, wherein opposition to other persons is implied, ὡς μὲν ἐμῷ θυμῷ δοκεῖ [

Refs 8th c.BC+]; δοκεῖν μέν μοι ἥξει τήμερον [τὸ πλοῖον] [

Refs 5th c.BC+]: hence with the

*person* *pronoun*, ἐγὼ μέν νυν θεοῖσι ἔχω χάριν [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; ἐγὼ μὲν οὐδέν (i.e. θέλω) [

Refs 5th c.BC+]: with the

*demonstrative* *pronoun*, τούτου μὲν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐγὼ σοφώτερός εἰμι [

Refs 5th c.BC+] great

**indeed** has been the change, [

Refs 4th c.BC+]

** A.I.3**) μέν is used alone in questions, when the answer is assumed,

**I take it**, θέμις μὲν ἡμᾶς χρησμὸν εἰδέναι θεο; [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; Ἕλλην μέν ἐστι καὶ Ἑλληνίζε; [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** A.II**) μέν followed by δέ in the correlative clause or clauses,

**on the one hand, on the other hand**; commonly in Classical Gr, less frequently in later Gr. (rare in NT

** A.II.1**) μέν, δέ. (or when the correlative clause is

*negative*, μέν, οὐδέ, [

Refs 8th c.BC+], to mark opposition, [

Refs 8th c.BC+]—The opposed clauses commonly stand together, but are frequently separated by clauses, parenthetic or explanatory; e.g. μέν in [

Refs 8th c.BC+]; in [

Refs 5th c.BC+] in <[

Refs]

** A.II.2**) to connect a series of clauses containing different matter, though with no opposition, [

Refs 8th c.BC+]; τότε μέν, τότε δέ, at

**one** time, at

**another**, [

Refs] ὁ μέν, ὁ δέ; τὸ μέν, τὸ δέ, etc.

** A.II.3**) the principal word is frequently repeated, οἳ περὶ μὲν βουλὴν Δαναῶν, περὶ δ᾽ ἐστὲ μάχεσθαι [

Refs 8th c.BC+]; χαλεπαίνει μὲν πρῳρεύς, χαλεπαίνει δὲ κυβερνήτης [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** A.II.4**) one of the correlative clauses is sometimes independent, while the other takes the

*participle* or some other dependent form, ἐβλασφήμει κατ᾽ ἐμοῦ, μάρτυρα μὲν. οὐδένα παρασχόμενος, παρεκελεύετο δέ. [

Refs 5th c.BC+] b.

** A.II.5**) μέν and δέ frequently oppose two clauses, whereof one is subordinate to the other in meaning or emphasis, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]: so in an anacoluthon, [

Refs 8th c.BC+]

** A.II.6**) μέν is not always answered by δέ, but frequently by other equivalent Particles, as ἀλλά,

Refs 8th c.BC+] in

*Epic dialect*, [

Refs 8th c.BC+]; πρῶτον μέν, μετὰ τοῦτο. [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; μάλιστα μὲν δὴ, ἔπειτα μέντοι. [

Refs 5th c.BC+] —rarely by μήν with

*negative*, οὐδὲν μὴν κωλύει [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** A.II.6.b**) when the opposition is emphatic, δέ is sometimes strengthened, as ὅμως δέ. [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; δ᾽ αὖ. [

Refs 8th c.BC+]; δ᾽ ἔμπης. [

Refs 8th c.BC+]

** A.II.6.c**) μέν is sometimes answered by a

*copulative* Particle, κάρτιστοι μὲν ἔσαν καὶ καρτίστοις ἐμάχοντο[

Refs 8th c.BC+], etc: rarely in Prose, τρία μὲν ἔτη ἀντεῖχον, καὶ οὐ πρότερον ἐνέδοσαν [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** B**) μέν before other Particles:

** B.I**) where each Particle retains its force,

** B.I.1**) μὲν ἄρα, in [

Refs 8th c.BC+]

** B.I.2**) μὲν γάρ [

Refs 8th c.BC+] there is frequently no second clause, [

Refs 8th c.BC+]

** B.I.3**) μέν γε, when a general statement is explained in detail, Κορινθίοις μέν γε ἔνσπονδοί ἐστε [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** B.I.4**) μὲν δή [

Refs 8th c.BC+]: frequently used to express positive certainty, ἀλλ᾽ οἶσθα μὲν δή [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; especially as a conclusion, τοῦτο μὲν δὴ. ὁμολογεῖται [

Refs 5th c.BC+]: in closing a statement, τοιαῦτα μὲν δὴ ταῦτα [

Refs 8th c.BC+]; οὐ μὲν δή, to deny positively, [

Refs 8th c.BC+]; ἀλλ᾽ οὔ τι μὲν δή. [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** B.I.5**) μὲν οὖν, see below 11.2.

** B.II**) where the Particles combine so as to form a new sense,

** B.II.1**) μέν γε

**at all events, at any rate** (not in Trag.), τοῦτο μέν γ᾽ ἤδη σαφές [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** B.II.2**) μὲν οὖν is frequently used with a corresponding δέ, so that each Particle retains its force, [

Refs 8th c.BC+]: but frequently also

*absolutely*,

**so then**, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; especially in replies, sometimes in strong affirmation, παντάπασι μὲν οὖν [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; also to substitute a new statement so as to correct a preceding statement,

**nay rather**, κακοδαίμω; Answ. βαρυδαίμων μὲν οὖν! [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; μου πρὸς τὴν κεφαλὴν ἀποψῶ wipe your nose on my head: Answ. ἐμοῦ μὲν οὖν.

**nay** on mine, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; compare οὐμενοῦν: in “NT” μενοῦν and μενοῦνγε", to begin a sentence,

**yea rather,** [

NT+5th c.BC+]

** B.II.3**) by μέν τε, if δέ τε follows, the two clauses are more closely combined than by τε, τε, [

Refs 8th c.BC+]; by ἀλλά, αὐτάρ,[

Refs 8th c.BC+]; perhaps by ἠδέ, [

Refs 8th c.BC+]

*absolutely*, when τε loses its force, as after ἦ, τίς, etc, [

Refs 8th c.BC+]

** B.II.4**) μέν τοι in [

Refs 8th c.BC+] always occurs in speeches, where τοι can be regarded as the

*dative* of the

*pronoun*: later, μέντοι is written as a single word, and is used:

** B.II.4.a**) with a

*conjunctive* force,

**yet, nevertheless**, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; and sometimes stands for δέ, answering to μέν, see above [

Refs 4th c.BC+]

** B.II.4.b**) as an

*adverb*, in strong protestations, οὐ μέντοι μὰ Δία[

Refs 4th c.BC+]; in eager or positive assent,

**of course**, φαμέν τι εἶναι; Answ. φαμὲν μέντοι νὴ Δία [

Refs 5th c.BC+];

**why**, are you not? [

Refs]; τί μ. πρῶτον ἦν, τί πρῶτον ἦ;

**nay** what

**was** the first? [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; σὺ μέντοι. [

Refs 2nd c.AD+]

**only** take heed, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

**nay** it would be absurd, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; summing up a long temporal clause, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** B.II.4.c**) μέντοι γε [

Refs 5th c.BC+] stands first in the sentence, μ. οὐ θέλω [

Refs 1st c.AD+]; also γε μέντοι [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** B.II.4.d**) καὶ μ. καί is used to add a point to be noted, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; also καί. μ, νῦν σοι καιρός ἐστιν ἐπιδείξασθαι τὴν παιδείαν, καὶ φυλάξασθαι μέντοι. and

**of course** to take care, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** B.II.4.e**) ἀλλὰ μέντοι

**well, if it comes to that**, [

Refs 5th c.BC+];

**well, of course**, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; compare μέντον.

** C**) for μέν after other Particles, see each Particle.

** D**) Position of μέν. Like δέ, it usually stands as the second word in a sentence. But when a sentence begins with words common to its subordinate clauses, μέν stands second in the first of these clauses, as ἥδε γὰρ γυνὴ δούλη μέν, εἴρηκεν δ᾽ ἐλεύθερον λόγον [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; οἱ Ἀθηναῖοι ἐτάξαντο μέν, ἡσύχαζον δέ. [

Refs 5th c.BC+], even when these do not stand first: sometimes however it precedes them, ὡς μὲν ἐγὼ οἶμαι [

Refs 5th c.BC+]. It generally stands between the

*Article* and Noun, or the

*preposition* and its Case: but if special stress is laid on the Noun, this is sometimes neglected, as οἱ Τεγεᾶται μὲν ἐπηυλίσαντο, Μαντινῆς δὲ ἀπεχώρησαν [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; ἀνὰ τὸ σκοτεινὸν μέν. [

Refs 5th c.BC+].

** D.II**) μέν is frequently repeated:

** D.II.1**) when, besides the opposition of two main clauses, a subordinate opposition is introduced into the first, ὁ μὲν ἀνὴρ τοιαῦτα μὲν πεποίηκε τοιαῦτα δὲ λέγει, ὑμῶν δέ. [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** D.II.2**) in apodosi with the

*demonstrative* *pronoun* or

*adverb*, τὸν μὲν καλέουσι θέρος, τοῦτον μὲν προσκυνέουσι, τὸν δὲ χειμῶνα[

Refs 5th c.BC+]; ὅτε μέν με οἱ ἄρχοντες ἔταττον, τότε μὲν ἔμενον, τοῦ δὲ θεοῦ τάττοντος. ἐνταῦθα δέ. [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** D.II.3**) μέν used absolutely is frequently followed by a correlative μέν, εἰ μὲν οὖν ἡμεῖς μὲν. ποιοῦμεν [

Refs]

** D.III**) μέν is sometimes omitted (especially in Poetry) where it is implied in the following δέ, φεύγων, ὁ δ᾽ ὄπισθε διώκων [

Refs 8th c.BC+]