** ὅπως**,

*Epic dialect* also and

*Aeolic dialect* **ὅππως**,

*Ionic dialect* **ὅκως**,

*Doric dialect* **ὁπῶς** *accusative* to [

Refs 2nd c.AD+]

*adverb of Manner*, Relat.

**as, in such manner as,** and with

*interrogative* force

**how, in what manner,** rarely

*indefinite*, see below [

Refs 4th c.BC+]

** B**) FINAL CONJUNCTION,

**in such a manner that, in order that.** *adverb of Manner*,

**how, as**:

** B.I**) Relat. to ὥς or οὕτως (like ὡς),

**in such manner as, as**:

** B.I.1**) with the ordinary Constr. of the Relat:

** B.I.1.a**) with

*indicative*, ἦ τοι νόστον, ὅπως φρεσὶ σῇσι μενοινᾷς, ὥς τοι Ζεὺς τελέσειεν [

Refs 8th c.BC+]

*adverb*, με τοῖον ἔθηκεν, ὅπως (for οἷον)[

Refs 8th c.BC+]; ὅ. ἔχω

**as** I am,

**on the spot,** [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** B.I.1.b**) with

*future* *indicative*, especially after Verbs of seeing, providing, taking care,

**in the manner in which, how, that,** οἱ Περσικοὶ νόμοι ἐπιμέλονται ὅπως μὴ τοιοῦτοι ἔσονται οἱ πολῖται [

Refs 5th c.BC+]: this

*future* *indicative* may become

*optative* after a historical tense, ἐπεμελεῖτο ὅπως μήτε ἄσιτοι μήτε ἄποτοί ποτε ἔσοιντο [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; and ὅπως is frequently used interchangeably with such forms as δι᾽ ὧν, ὅτῳ τρόπῳ, etc, εἰσηγοῦνται μὴ δι᾽ ὧν. ἀσκήσουσιν, ἀλλ᾽ ὅπως. δόξουσι [

Refs 5th c.BC+]: this sense easily passes into a final sense,

**so that,** τοῦτο ἀπόβαλε οὕτω ὅκως μηκέτι ἥξει [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; οὕτω δ᾽ (i.e. ποίει) ὅπως μήτηρ σε μὴ 'πιγνώσεται [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; see below [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** B.I.2**) with ἄν (

*Epic dialect* κε) and

*subjunctive* in indefinite sentences,

**in whatever way, just as, however,** ὅππως κεν ἐθέλῃσιν [

Refs 8th c.BC+]

** B.I.2.b**) with

*optative* after historical tenses, οὕτως ὅ. τύχοιεν [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; in a gnomic statement, εἰκῇ κράτιστον ζῆν ὅ. δύναιτό τις [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

**however** one might think fit to call it, [

Refs 4th c.BC+]

** B.I.3**) a very common phrase is οὐκ ἔστιν ὅ. (οὐκ ἔσθ᾽ ὅπως) there is no way

**in which,** it cannot be

**that,** οὐκ ἔστι ὅκως κοτὲ σοὺς δέξονται λόγους [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; so οὐκ ἔστιν ὅ. οὐ,

**fieri non potest quin,** οὐκ ἔσθ᾽ ὅ. οὐ πιστὸν ἐξ ὑμῶν πτερὸν ἐξήγαγ᾽ [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; οὐδαμῶς ὅ. οὐ, in answer,

**it must positively be so,** [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; οὐ γὰρ γένοιτ᾽ ἄν, ταῦθ᾽ ὅ. οὐχ ὧδ᾽ ἔχειν (

*anacoluthon* for ἔχει or ἕξει) [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; ἔστιν οὖν ὅ. ὁ τοιοῦτος φιλοσοφήσε; [

Refs 5th c.BC+] may be followed by

*optative* with ἄν, οὐ γάρ ἐσθ᾽ ὅπως μί᾽ ἡμέρα γένοιτ᾽ ἂν ἡμέραι δύο [

Refs 5th c.BC+] is omitted in οὐκ ἔσθ᾽ ὅπως λέξαιμι [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** B.I.4**) in Trag, etc, like{ὡς} in comparisons, κῦμ᾽ ὅπως [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; ὅπως δρῦν ὑλοτόμοι σχίζουσι κάρα [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; so in

*Locrian dialect* Prose, ὅπω(σ)ξένον [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** B.I.5**) like{ὡς} or ὅτι, with

*superlative* of Advs, ὅ. ἄριστα [

Refs 4th c.BC+]; ὅ. ἀνωτάτω as high up

**as** possible, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; in full, οὕτως ὅ. ἥδιστα (i.e. ἔχει) [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** B.I.6**) with a

*genitive* added, σοῦσθε ὅ. ποδῶν run

**as you are off for** feet, i. e. as quick as you can, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** B.I.7**) sometimes of Time,

**when,** Τρῶες. ὅπως ἴδον αἷμ᾽ Ὀδυσῆος, ἐπ᾽ αὐτῷ πάντες ἔβησαν [

Refs 8th c.BC+] with

*optative*,

**whenever,** ὅκως μὲν εἴη ἐν τῇ γῇ καρπὸς ἁδρός [

Refs]: in Trag. and Comedy texts, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]: with

*superlative* of Advs, ὅ. πρῶτα

**as soon as,** [

Refs 8th c.BC+]

** B.I.8**) of Place,

**where,** uncertain in [

Refs 3rd c.BC+]

** B.II**) ὅπως is sometimes used to introduce the substance of a statement, after Verbs of saying, thinking, or perceiving,

**that, how,** λόγῳ ἀνάπεισον ὅκως. [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; τοῦτ᾽ αὐτὸ μή μοι φράζ᾽, ὅπως οὐκ εἶ κακός [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; after ἐλπίζειν, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; after Verbs of emotion, ἐμοὶ δ᾽ ἄχος, ὅπως δὴ δηρὸν ἀποίχεται grief is mine, when I think

**how. ** (i. e.

**that. **), [

Refs 8th c.BC+]; after θαυμάζω frequently in

*Attic dialect*, θαυμάζω ὅ. ποτὲ ἐπείσθησαν Ἀθηναῖοι [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** B.II.2**) οὐχ ὅ. ἀλλὰ or ἀλλὰ καὶ. is

**not only not. but,** and is explained by an ellipsis of λέγω or ἐρῶ (compare ὅτι IV), οὐχ ὅ. κωλυταὶ. γενήσεσθε, ἀλλὰ καὶ. δύναμιν προσλαβεῖν περιόψεσθε

**not only** will you

**not** become,

**but** you will

**also,** [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

**do not think that** you could dance =

**so far from being able** to dance, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** B.II.2.b**) οὐχ ὅ. rarely follows another clause,

**to say nothing of, let alone,** πεπαύμεθ᾽ ἡμεῖς, οὐχ ὅ. σε παύσομεν [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; μηδ᾽ ἐμπίδα, οὐχ ὅπως ταῦρον ἔτι ἄρασθαι δυνάμενος.

**let alone** a bull, [

Refs 2nd c.AD+]

** B.III**) in in direct questions,

**how, in what way** or

**manner**:

** B.III.1**) with

*indicative*,

** B.III.1.a**) ἔσπετε νῦν μοι ὅππως δὴ. πῦρ ἔμπεσε νηυσίν [

Refs 8th c.BC+]

** B.III.1.b**) notably

*future* after Verbs of deliberation (like the

*subjunctive*, see[

Refs]; φράζευ ὅπως Δαναοῖσιν ἀλεξήσεις κακὸν ἦμαρ (variant{ἀλεξήσῃς})[

Refs 8th c.BC+]

** B.III.2**) with deliberative

*subjunctive* after Verbs of deliberation, taking care, and the like, λεύσσει ὅπως ὄχ᾽ ἄριστα. γένηται [

Refs 8th c.BC+]; ἐνόησεν (gnomic

*aorist*) ὅππως κέρδος ἔῃ [

Refs 8th c.BC+]—Sts. the

*future* and

*subjunctive* are conjoined without difference of meaning, ἐπράττετο γὰρ, πρῶτον μὲν ὅπως μὴ περιμείνητε, δεύτερον δὲ ὅπως ψηφιε̄σθε, τρίτον δὲ ὅπως μὴ ἔσται [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** B.III.3**) with

*optative* after tenses of past time, τῶν ἀδῄλων ὅπως ἀποβήσοιτο [

Refs 8th c.BC+]

** B.III.4**) with

*optative* and ἄν frequently expressing a wish, which in

*direct speech* would be expressed by πῶς ἄν, σκόπει ὅ. ἂν ἀποθάνοιμεν ἀνδρικώτατα [

Refs 5th c.BC+] and

*subjunctive* sometimes appear in consecutive clauses, [

Refs]

** B.III.5**) ὅπως ἄν (κεν) with the

*subjunctive* is used after

*imperative* or

*infinitive* used as

*imperative*, πείρα ὅπως κεν δὴ σὴν πατρίδα γαῖαν ἵκηαι [

Refs 8th c.BC+]

** B.III.6**) rarely with

*infinitive*, ἐπιμελήθητε προθύμως ὅπως διπλάσια. σῖτα καὶ ποτὰ παρασκευασθῆναι [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; so later ὅπως παρακολουθῆμεν (

*Doric dialect* *infinitive*) [

Refs 2nd c.BC+]; ὅπως. ἔχειν, ὅπως. εἴργεσθαι, [

Refs 1st c.BC+]

** B.III.7**) after Verbs of fear and caution, ὅπως and ὅπως μή are used with

*future* *indicative* or

*aorist* *subjunctive*:— the readings are frequently uncertain: the following (among others) are made certain either by the metre or the form,

** B.III.7.a**) with

*future* *indicative*, δέδοιχ᾽ ὅπως μὴ τεύξομαι [

Refs 5th c.BC+]: sometimes the preceding Verb is omitted, ὅπως μὴ οὐκ. ἔσομαι [

Refs]

** B.III.7.b**) with

*aorist* *subjunctive*, τὴν θεὸν δ᾽ ὅ. λάθω δέδοικα [

Refs 5th c.BC+]: rarely with

*present*, οὐ φοβεῖ ὅ. μὴ ἀνόσιον πρᾶγμα τυγχάνῃς πράττων [

Refs 5th c.BC+]: sometimes the preceding Verb is omitted, with

*aorist* *subjunctive*, ὅκως μή τι ὑμῖν πανώλεθρον κακὸν ἐς τὴν χώρην ἐσβάλωσι [

Refs 5th c.BC+]: with

*present* *subjunctive*, ὅπως μὴ. ᾖ τοῦτο [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** B.III.7.c**) with

*optative* representing

*subjunctive* after a historical tense, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** B.III.8**) this Constr. is used in admonitions or commands: in the originally Constr. a Verb implying caution or circumspection precedes, ὅρα ὅκως μή σευ ἀποστήσονται Πέρσαι [

Refs 5th c.BC+] with

*future* *indicative* or

*aorist* *subjunctive* are exactly = the

*imperative*, ἔμβα χὤπως ἀρεῖς [

Refs]

*future* *indicative*, ὅκως λόγον δώσεις τῶν μετεχείρισας χρημάτων, ={δίδου λόγον}, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; ὅπως παρέσει μοι, ={πάρισθι}, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]: rarely with I

*person*, ὁποῖα κισσὸς δρυός, ὅπως τῆσδ᾽ ἕξομαι [

Refs 5th c.BC+]: very rarely with

*aorist* *subjunctive*, ὅπως μή τι ἡμᾶς σφήλῃ [

Refs 5th c.BC+] —The codices frequently vary, as between διδάξεις and

**-ξῃς** [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; τιμωρήσονται and

**-ωνται**[

Refs 5th c.BC+]; θορυβήσει and

**-σῃ**[

Refs 4th c.BC+] —Since the

*future* is frequently, and the

*aorist* (whether 1 or 2) rarely guaranteed by metre or form, the

*aorist 1* forms should probably be rejected, both in

*signification* 7 and 8, in cases where codices vary.

** B.III.9**) as the echo to a preceding πῶ; in dialogue, A καὶ πῶ; B ὅπως"; [do you ask]

**how?** [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** B.III.10**) with a

*genitive* (see.[

Refs]

**in the matter of,** [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** B.IV**) in

**direct** questions,

**how?** ἔπραξας ὅπω; [

Refs 4th c.AD+]-C; compare ὅστις.

** B.V**)

*indefinite*,

**anyhow,** τὸ οὐδ᾽ ὅ. the expression 'not

**at all**', [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** B**) FINAL CONJUNCTION,

**that, in order that,** the original notion of modality being merged in that of purpose or design, compare ἵνα, with which it is sometimes interchanged, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** B.1**) with

*subjunctive*,

** B.1.a**) after primary tenses, or after

*subjunctive* or

*imperative*, τὸν δὲ μνηστῆρες. λοχῶσιν, ὅπως ἀπὸ φῦλον ὄληται [

Refs 8th c.BC+]

** B.1.b**) after historical tenses (see. ἵνα [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

*perfect* form, or when the

*aorist* represents the

*perfect*, ξυνελέγημεν ἐνθάδε, ὅ. προμελετήσωμεν we were convened, i. e. we have met in assembly, [

Refs 5th c.BC+], etc: sometimes the

*optative* and

*subjunctive* appear in consecutive clauses, φρυκτοὺς παρεσκευασμένους ἐς αὐτὸ τοῦτο, ὅπως ἀσαφῆ τὰ σημεῖα. ᾖ καὶ μὴ βοηθοῖεν [

Refs]

** B.2**) with

*optative* after historical tenses, πὰρ δέ οἱ αὐτὸς ἔστη, ὅπως. κῆρας ἀλάλκοι [

Refs 8th c.BC+]; so in [

Refs 5th c.BC+]: after historical

*present*, πέμπει τούσδ᾽ ὅπως κτείνοιεν [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** B.3**) with

*indicative*,

** B.3.a**) of historical tenses, where the principal clause expresses an action or obligation unfulfilled, εἴθ᾽ εἶχε φωνὴν ἔμφρον᾽ ἀγγέλου δίκην, ὅ. δίφροντις οὖσα μὴ 'κινυσσόμην [

Refs 5th c.BC+]: rare in Prose, ἐδεξάμην ἃν. φράσαι πρὸς ὑμᾶς, ὅ. προῄδετε [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; τίς οὐκ ἂν. ταῦτα ἐδήλωσεν, ὅ. ταῦτα ἠλέγχθ; [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; τί. οὐκ ἔρριψ᾽ ἐμαυτὴν. ὅ. ἀπηλλάγη; [

Refs 4th c.BC+]

** B.3.b**) of

*future*, θέλγει, ὅ. Ἰθάκης ἐπιλήσεται (= φραζομένη ὅπως ἐ.) [

Refs 8th c.BC+]: sometimes

*future* *indicative* and

*aorist* *subjunctive* are conjoined, σιγᾶθ᾽, ὅ. μὴ πεύσεταί τις, ὦ τέκνα, γλώσσης χάριν δὲ πάντ᾽ ἀπαγγείλῃ τάδε [

Refs 4th c.BC+]

** B.II**) ὅπως with

*subjunctive* is sometimes used after Verbs of will and endeavour, instead of the

*infinitive*, λίσσεσθαι. ὅ. νημερτέα εἴπῃ [

Refs 8th c.BC+]; παρακελεύεσθε ὑμῖν αὐτοῖς ὅ. ἐξίητε [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; so δεῖ σ᾽ ὅ. δείξεις (for δεῖξαι), [

Refs 5th c.BC+]