** ὑπέρ** [ῠ],

*Epic dialect* also

**ὑπείρ**, used by [

Refs 8th c.BC+]

**ὁπέρ** (which see): in

*Aeolic dialect* replaced by περί (see. περί [

Refs 4th c.BC+] also

*dative* (Cf. Sanskrit

*upaári* 'above', Gothic

*ufar,* O[

Refs 5th c.BC+]

**ofer** 'over':—from it are formed the

*comparative* and

*superlative* ὑπέρτερος, -τατος, also

*adverb* ὕπερθεν, and Nouns ὑπέρα, ὕπερος.)

** A**) WITH GENIT,

** A.I**) of Place,

**over;** ** A.I.1**) in a state of rest,

**over, above,** frequently in [

Refs 8th c.BC+]; χιτωνίσκους ἐνεδεδύκεσαν ὑ. γονάτων

**not reaching to** the knees, [

Refs 8th c.BC+]; στῆ δ᾽ ἄρ᾽ ὑ. κεφαλῆς stood

**over** his head as he lay asleep, [

Refs 8th c.BC+]; ὑ. κεφαλῆς οἱ ἐγίνετο διεξελαύνοντι

**over** head, i. e. over the gateway, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; τὰ ὑ. κεφαλῆς the higher ground, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; Ἰονίας ὑ. ἁλὸς οἰκέων

**on** the Ionian sea, i.e. on its shores, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]: of relative geographical position,

**above, farther inland,** οἰκέοντες ὑ. Ἁλικαρνησσοῦ μεσόγαιαν [

Refs 5th c.BC+]: in Hellenistic Gr. the

*accusative* is commoner in this sense, see below [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** A.I.1.b**) of ships at sea,

**off** a place, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** A.I.2**) in a state of motion,

**over, across,** κῦμα νηὸς ὑ. τοίχων καταβήσεται [

Refs 8th c.BC+]; ἐκκυβιστᾶν ὑ. [τῶν ξιφῶν] [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** A.I.3**)

**over, beyond,** ἐν Κρήτῃ εὐρείῃ τηλοῦ ὑ. πόντου [

Refs 8th c.BC+]

** A.II**)

*metaphorically*,

**in defence of, on behalf of,** τεῖχος ἐτειχίσσαντο νεῶν ὕ. [

Refs 8th c.BC+]: generally,

**for the prosperity** or

**safety of,** τὰ ἱερὰ ὑ. τῆς Εὐβοίας θῦσαι [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; in dedications (always with reference to living persons), Σμικύθη μ᾽ ἀνέθηκεν. εὐξαμένη. ὑ. παίδων καὶ ἑαυτῆς [

Refs 3rd c.BC+]; εὑδόντων ὕ. φρούρημα [

Refs 4th c.BC+]; ὑ. τινὸς κινδυνεύειν, μάχεσθαι, βοηθεῖν, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; ἀμυνῶ ὑ. ἱερῶν καὶ ὁσίων Jusj. cited in [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; πάνθ᾽ ὑ. ὑμῶν φανήσεται πράξας Χαβρίας, καὶ τὴν τελευτὴν αὐτὴν τοῦ βίου πεποιημένος οὐχ ὑ. ἄλλου τινός

**in** your

**interests,** [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; of things sought, ὑ. τοῦ νεκροῦ ὠθισμὸς ἐγένετο πολύς [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; ἀφίκετο ὑ. γενεᾶς, ὑ. φωνᾶς, ὑ. τοῦ θησαυροῦ, [

Refs 4th c.BC+]; γίνωσκέ με πεπορεῦσθαι εἰς Ἡρακλέους πόλιν ὑ. τῆς οἰκίας [

Refs 2nd c.BC+]; sometimes even of the thing to be averted, ἱκέσιον λόχον δουλοσύνας ὕ.

**about** slavery, [

Refs 4th c.BC+]

** A.II.2**)

**for, instead of, in the name of,** ὑ. ἑαυτοῦ τι προϊδεῖν

**on** his own

**behalf,** [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; ὑ. Ζήνωνος πράσσων

**as** Zeno's

**representative**, [

Refs 3rd c.BC+]; ἔγραψεν ὑ. αὐτῶν διὰ τὸ φάσκειν αὐτοὺς μὴ εἰδέναι γράμματα [

Refs 2nd c.BC+]; θεάσασθε ὃν τρόπον ὑμεῖς ἐστρατηγηκότες πάντ᾽ ἔσεσθ᾽ ὑ. Φιλίππου as though

**by commission from** P, [

Refs 4th c.BC+]; so in other dialects with

*accusative*, see below [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** A.II.3**) in adjurations, with verbs of entreaty, entreat one

**as representative of** another, τῶν ὕ. ἐνθάδ᾽ ἐγὼ γουνάζομαι οὐ παρεόντων, i. e. I entreat you as they would if they were here, [

Refs 8th c.BC+]; then more

*metaphorically*,

**by,** λίσσομ᾽ ὑ. ψυχῆς (

**as you value** your life) καὶ γούνων σῶν τε τοκήων [

Refs 8th c.BC+]; ὑ. ξενίου λίσσεται ὔμμε Διός

**in the name of** Zeus, [

Refs 3rd c.BC+]; so

*Aeolic dialect* περ (see. περί [

Refs 4th c.BC+]

** A.II.4**) of the cause or motive,

**for, because of, by reason of,** ἀλγέων ὕ. [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; of punishment or reward,

**for, on account of,** τοῖσιν ἄγουσιν κλαύμαθ᾽ ὑπάρξει βραδυτῆτος ὕ. [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; ἀτῆθθαι ὑ. τῶ πατρὸς τὰ πατρώϊα the father's property shall pay the fine

**for** the father, [

Refs 3rd c.BC+]; τοῦτον (

*i.e. * a runaway slave) ὃς ἂν ἀναγάγῃ, λήψεται ὅσα καὶ ὑ. τοῦ προγεγραμμένου [

Refs 2nd c.BC+]; τὸ κατεσκευασμένον ὑ. τῆς ἡμετέρας σωτηρίας Ἰσιδεῖον

**as a thank-offering for,** [

Refs 1st c.BC+]; ὑ. ὧν ἐτιμήσαμεν αὐτοὺς ταῖς μεγίσταις τιμαῖς [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; of payment, ἡμιωβέλιον ὑ. ἑκάστου [

Refs]; μέτρησον Ποσειδωνίῳ ὑ. Ἡρακλείδου

**on account of** H, i.e. debiting H.'s account, [

Refs 1st c.BC+]; μετρήσω ὑ. σοῦ εἰς τὸ δημόσιον

**for the credit of** your

**account,** [

Refs 2nd c.AD+]; ὑ. λαογραφίας [

Refs 1st c.AD+]; ὑ. λόγου ἀννώνης [

Refs 3rd c.AD+]; ὑ. ὧν ἔμαθεν καταβαλεῖν μισθόν [

Refs 2nd c.AD+]

** A.II.5**) ὑ. τοῦ μή with

*infinitive*,

**for the purpose of preventing** or

**avoiding,** ὑ. τοῦ μηδένα. βιαίῳ θανάτῳ ἀποθνῄσκειν [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

**for the sake of,** ὑ. τοῦτοῖς ἄλλοις ἐπιτάττειν ἐθέλειν ἀποθνῄσκειν to be ready to die

**for the sake of**, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]: this

*construction* is found also in

*signification* [

Refs 4th c.BC+]

** A.III**)

**concerning,** ὑ. σέθεν αῐσχε᾽ ἀκούω [

Refs 8th c.BC+]; τὰ λεγόμενα ὑ. ἑκάστων variant in [

Refs 4th c.BC+]; διαλεχθῆναι, ἀγορεύειν ὑ. τινός, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; περὶ μὲν οὖν τούτων τοσαῦτά μοι εἰρήσθω, ὑ. ὧν δέ μοι προσήκει λέγειν. [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; βουλευομένων ὑ. τοῦ ποίαν τινὰ [εἰρήνην ποιητέον] [

Refs 3rd c.BC+]; ἐνεκάλουν ὑ. σύκων [

Refs 3rd c.BC+]; ἐπεδώκαμέν σοι ὑπόμνημα ὑ. τοῦ μὴ εἰληφέναι τὴν. ὄλυραν [

Refs 2nd c.BC+]; συλλαλήσαντες ὑ. τοῦ τὴν πόλιν ἐνδοῦναι τοῖς Ῥωμαίοις [

Refs 2nd c.BC+]; θροῦς ὑ. τοῦ τὸν Λυκοῦργον ἐκπέμπειν talk

**of** sending L, [

Refs]; γνώμην ὑ. τῆς κοινῆς [δόξης] [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** B**) WITH ACCUSATIVE

** B.I**) of Place in reference to motion,

**over, beyond,** frequently in [

Refs 8th c.BC+]: without such reference, ὑ. Ἡρακλείας στήλας ἔξω κατοικοῦσι [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; οὐλὴ. ὑ. ὀφρὺν δεξιάν [

Refs 3rd c.BC+]; τὸ ὑ. τὸν ἔσχατον. σπόνδυλον [

Refs 2nd c.AD+]

** B.II**) of Measure,

**above, exceeding, beyond,** ὑ. τὸν ἀλαθῆ λόγον [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; ὑ. ἡμᾶς

**beyond** our powers, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; ὑ. τὸ ὕδωρ [

Refs 2nd c.AD+]

** B.II.b**) after

*comparative*,

**than,** δυνατώτεροι ὑ. [

LXX]

**better than** he,[

LXX]

** B.II.2**) of transgression,

**in violation of,** ὑ. αἶσαν, opposed to κατ᾽ αἶσαν, [

Refs 8th c.BC+]; ὑ. μόρον (or ὑπέρμορον)[

Refs]

** B.III**) of Number,

**above, upwards of,** τὰ ὑ. δέκα μνᾶς [ξυμβόλαια] [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; ὑ. τετταράκοντα (i.e. ἔτη) [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; ὑ. ἥμισυ

**more than** half, [

Refs]

** B.IV**) of Time,

**beyond,** i.e.

**before, earlier than,** ὁ ὑ. τὰ Μηδικὰ πόλεμος [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** B.V**) in some dialects, in sense [

Refs 4th c.BC+],

**on behalf of,** ὑ. τὰν πόλιν [

Refs 3rd c.BC+]; in sense [

Refs 4th c.BC+],

**concerning,** ἐπικράνθη μοι ὑ. ὑμᾶς [

LXX]

** C**) WITH DAT, only [

Refs 4th c.AD+] fighting

**for,** [

Refs 3rd c.BC+]

** D**) POSITION: ὑπέρ may follow its

*substantive*, but then by anastrophe becomes ὕπερ, [

Refs 8th c.BC+]

** E**) AS

*adverb*,

**over-much, above measure,** ὑπὲρ μὲν ἄγαν [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; also written ὑπεράγαν, [

Refs 1st c.BC+]; compare ὑπέρφευ: as a predicate, διάκονοι Χριστοῦ εἰσ; ὑπὲρ ἐγώ I am

**more** [than they], [

NT]

** F**) IN COMPOSITION (joined with other words), signifies

**over, above,** in all relations, e. g,

** F.1**) of Place,

**over, beyond,** as in ὑπεράνω, ὑπέργειος, ὑπερβαίνω, ὑπερπόντιος.

** F.2**) of doing a thing

**for** or

**in defence of,** as in ὑπερμαχέω, ὑπερασπίζω, ὑπεραλγέω.

** F.3**)

**above measure,** as in ὑπερήφανος, ὑπερφίαλος.