** γάρ** (γε, ἄρα), causal

*conjunction*, used alone or with other Particles.

** I**) introducing the reason or cause of what precedes,

**for**, τῷ γὰρ ἐπὶ φρεσὶ θῆκε θεὰ λευκώλενος Ἥρη· κήδετο γ. Δαναῶν [

Refs 8th c.BC+]; but frequently in explanation of that which is implied in the preceding clause, πολλάων πολίων κατέλυσε κάρηνα. τοῦ γὰρ κράτος ἐστὶ μέγιστον [

Refs]

** I.b**) in simple explanations, especially after a Pronoun or

*demonstrative* *adjective*, ἀλλὰ τόδ᾽ αἰνὸν ἄχος κραδίην καὶ θυμὸν ἱκάνει· Ἕκτωρ γ. ποτε φήσει [

Refs 8th c.BC+]; ὃ δὲ δεινότατον. ὁ Ζεὺς γ. [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; frequently in introducing proofs or examples, μαρτύριον δέ· Δήλου γ. καθαιρομένης. [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; τεκμήριον δέ· οὔτε γ. Λακεδαιμόνιοι. [

Refs 4th c.BC+]; in full, τεκμήριον δὲ τούτου τόδε· αἱ μὲν γ. [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; παράδειγμα τόδε τοῦ λόγου· ἐκ γ. [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** I.c**) to introduce a detailed description or narration already alluded to, ὅμως δὲ λεκτέα ἃ γιγνώσκω· ἔχει γ. [ἡ χώρα] πεδία κάλλιστα. [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** I.d**) in answers to questions or statements challenging assent or denial,

**yes, no. **, οὔκουν. ἀνάγκη ἐστ;—ἀνάγκη γ. οὖν, ἔφη,

**ay doubtless** it is necessary, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; ἱκανὸς γ, ἔφη, συμβαίνει γ, ἔφη, [

Refs]; οὔκουν δὴ τό γ᾽ εἰκός.—οὐ γ: [

Refs]

** I.2**) by inversion, preceding the fact explained,

**since, as**, Ἀτρεΐδη, πολλοὶ γ. τεθνᾶσιν Ἀχαιοί. τῷ σε χρὴ πόλεμον παῦσαι [

Refs 8th c.BC+]; χρόνου δὲ οὐ πολλοῦ διελθόντος (χρῆν γ. Κανδαύλῃ γενέσθαι κακῶς) ἔλεγε πρὸς τὸν Γύγην τοιάδε, Γύγη, οὐ γ. σε δοκέω πείθεσθαι. (ὦτα γ. τυγχάνει κτλ.), ποίει ὅκως. [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; εἶεν, σὺ γ. τούτων ἐπιστήμων, τί χρὴ ποιεῖ; [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; the principal proposition is sometimes

** I.2.b**) blended with the causal one, τῇ δὲ κακῶς γ. ἔδεε γενέσθαι εἶπε, i.e. ἡ δέ (κακῶς γ. οἱ ἔδεε γενέσθαι) εἶπε [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** I.2.c**) attached to the hypothet. Particle instead of being joined to the apodosis, οὐδ᾽ εἰ γ. ἦν τὸ πρᾶγμα μὴ θεήλατον, ἀκάθαρτον ὑμᾶς εἰκὸς ἦν οὕτως ἐᾶν, i.e. οὐδὲ γ. εἰ ἦν, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** I.2.d**) repeated, οὐ γ. οὖν σιγήσομαι· ἔτικτε γ. [

Refs]

** I.3**) in elliptical phrases, where that of which γάρ gives the reason is omitted, and must be supplied,

** I.3.a**) frequently in Trag. dialogue and [

Refs 5th c.BC+], when

**yes** or

**no** may be supplied from the context, καὶ δῆτ᾽ ἐτόλμας τούσδ᾽ ὑπερβαίνειν νόμου;—οὐ γ. τί μοι Ζεὺς ἦν ὁ κηρύξας τάδε [yes],

**for** it was not Zeus, etc, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; frequently in phrase ἔστι γ. οὕτω [yes],

**for** so it is, i. e. yes certainly: λέγεταί τι καινό; γένοιτο γ. ἄν τι καινότερον ἢ; [why,] could there be? [

Refs 5th c.BC+] [do so],

**yet** shall ye never prevail by this means: for ἀλλὰ γ, see below[

Refs]

** I.3.b**) to confirm or strengthen something said, οἵδ᾽ οὐκέτ᾽ εἰσί· τοῦτο γάρ σε δήξεται [I say this],

**for** it will sting thee, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]: after an Exclamation, ὦ πόποι· ἀνάριθμα γ. φέρω πήματα [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** I.3.c**) in conditional propositions, where the condition is omitted,

**else**, οὐ γ. ἄν με ἔπεμπον πάλιν (i.e. εἰ μὴ ἐπίστευον) [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; γίνεται γ. ἡ κοινωνία συμμαχία

**for in that case**, [

Refs 4th c.BC+]

** I.4**) in abrupt questions,

**why, what**, τίς γ. σε θεῶν ἐμοὶ ἄγγελον ἧκε;

**why** who hath sent thee? [

Refs 8th c.BC+]; πατροκτονοῦσα γ. ξυνοικήσεις ἐμο;

**what**, wilt thou? [

Refs 4th c.BC+];

**what**, was it? [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; τί γ;

**quid enim**? i. e. it must be so, [

Refs]; τί γ. δή ποτ; [

Refs 4th c.BC+]; also πῶς γ; πῶς γ. ο;, see at {πῶς}.

** I.5**) to strengthen a wish, with

*optative*, κακῶς γ. ἐξόλοιο O that you might perish! [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; compare αἴ, εἰ, εἴθε, πῶς.

** II**) joined with other Particles:

** II.1**) ἀλλὰ γ. where γάρ gives the reason of a clause to be supplied between ἀλλά and itself, as ἀλλ᾽ ἐν γὰρ Τρώων πεδίῳ. but [

**far otherwise], for**, [

Refs 8th c.BC+]; ἀλλὰ γὰρ ἥκουσ᾽ αἵδ᾽ ἐπὶ πρᾶγος πικρόν but [

**hush], for**, [

Refs 4th c.BC+]; ἀλλ᾽ οὐ γ. σ᾽ ἐθέλω. but [

**look out] for**, [

Refs 8th c.BC+]

** II.2**) γ. ἄρα

**for** indeed, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** II.3**) γ. δή

**for** of course,

**for** you know, [

Refs 8th c.BC+]; φάμεν γ. δή

**yes** certainly we say so, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** II.4**) γ. νυ [

Refs 8th c.BC+]

** II.5**) γ. οὖν

**for** indeed, to confirm or explain, [

Refs 8th c.BC+]; φησὶ γ. οὖν

**yes** of course he says so, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; compare τοιγαροῦν.

** II.6**) γ. που

**for** I suppose, especially with

*negatives*, [

Refs]

** II.7**) γ. ῥα, ={γὰρ ἄρα}, [

Refs 8th c.BC+]

** II.8**) γ. τε, [

Refs]; also τε γ. [

Refs 4th c.BC+]

** II.9**) γ. τοι

**for** surely, [

Refs 8th c.BC+]; compare τοιγάρτοι.

** B**) POSITION: γάρ properly stands after the first word in a clause, but in Pocts it frequently stands third or fourth, when the preceding words are closely connected, as ὁ μὲν γὰρ. [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; χἠ ναῦς γὰρ. [

Refs]; τό τ᾽ εἰκαθεῖν γὰρ. [

Refs]; τὸ μὴ θέμις γὰρ. [

Refs 4th c.BC+]: sometimes for metrical reasons, where there is no such connexion, as third [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; in later Comedy texts fifth [

Refs 4th c.BC+]; once sixth in [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** B.2**) inserted before the

*demonstrative* -ί, as νυνγαρί for νυνὶ γά; compare νυνί.

** C**) QUANTITY: γάρ is sometimes long in [

Refs 8th c.BC+].—In

*Attic dialect* always short: [

Refs 5th c.BC+]