** μή**, Elean

**μά** [ᾱ] [

Refs 6th c.BC+]. (Cf. Sanskrit

*mā´*, Armenian

*mi* [from I.-[

Refs 5th c.BC+]

**mē´**], negative used in prohibitions):—

**not**, the negative of the

**will** and

**thought**, as οὐ of

**fact** and

**statement**; μή rejects, οὐ denies; μή is relative, οὐ absolute; μή subjective, οὐ objective. (A few examples of μηδέ and μηδείς have been included.)

** A**) in INDEPENDENT sentences, used in expressions of

**will** or

**wish, command, entreaty, warning**,

** A.1**) with

*present* *imperative*, 2

*person*, μή μ᾽ ἐρέθιζε [

Refs 8th c.BC+]: rarely with

*aorist* *imperative*, μὴ. ἔνθεο τιμῇ [

Refs 8th c.BC+]; in

*Attic dialect*, μὴ ψεῦσον, ὦ Ζεῦ, τῆς. ἐλπίδος [

Refs 8th c.BC+]

*perfect* *imperative* [

Refs 8th c.BC+]

*person* when

*perfect* =

*present*, μὴ κεκράγετε [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** A.2**) with

*subjunctive* (usually [

Refs], in prohibitions, μὴ δή με. ἐάσῃς [

Refs 8th c.BC+]; μή τοί με κρύψῃς τοῦτο[

Refs 5th c.BC+]: coupled with

*present* *imperative*, μὴ βοηθήσητε τῷ πεπονθότι δεινά, μὴ εὐορκεῖτε [

Refs 8th c.BC+]

*person* *present* *subjunctive*, μὴ κάμνῃς [

Refs 5th c.BC+]: also with the hortative

*subjunctive* used to supply the [

Refs]

*person* of the

*imperative*,

*present* μὴ ἴομεν [

Refs 8th c.BC+]:

*aorist* μὴ πάθωμεν [

Refs 5th c.BC+]: rarely with

*1st pers.* *singular*, μή σε. κιχείω [

Refs 8th c.BC+] (

*anapaest meter*).

** A.2.b**) with

*present* or

*aorist* *subjunctive* in a warning or statement of fear, μὴ. γένησθε

**take care you do** **not become**, [

Refs 8th c.BC+]; μὴ. ὑφαίνῃσιν

**I fear. may prove to be weaving**, [

Refs 8th c.BC+]: in

*Attic dialect* Prose, to make a polite suggestion of apprehension or hesitation,

**perhaps**, μὴ ἀγροικότερον ᾖ τὸ ἀληθὲς εἰπεῖν [

Refs 5th c.BC+]: in later Greek the

*indicative* is found, μὴ ἡ ἔννοια ἡμῶν. ἀντιλαμβάνεται [

Refs 5th c.AD+]

** A.3**) with

*future* *indicative*, a uncertain usage (νεμεσήσετ᾽ is

*subjunctive* in [

Refs 8th c.BC+]; μὴ βουλήσεσθε (Papyrus βούλη[σθ]ε) [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** A.4**) with past tenses of

*indicative* to express an unfulfilled wish, μὴ ὄφελες λίσσεσθαι [

Refs 8th c.BC+]

** A.5**) with

*optative* to express a negative wish, with

*present*, ἃ μὴ κραίνοι τύχη [

Refs 4th c.BC+]: more frequently with

*aorist*, μὴ σέ γ᾽ ἐν ἀμφιάλῳ Ἰθάκῃ βασιλῆα Κρονίων ποιήσειεν [

Refs 8th c.BC+]

** A.6**) in oaths and asseverations, ἴστω Ζεὺς, μὴ μὲν τοῖς ἵπποισιν ἀνὴρ ἐποχήσεται ἄλλος [

Refs 8th c.BC+]

** A.7**) with

*infinitive*, when used as

*imperative*, μὴ δή μοι ἀπόπροθεν ἰσχέμεν ἵππους [

Refs 8th c.BC+]

** A.8**) frequently without a Verb, εἰ χρή, θανοῦμαι. Answ. μὴ σύ γε (i.e. θάνῃς) [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; ἄπελθε νῦν. Answ. μὴ (i.e. γενέσθω) ἀλλά

**nay but**, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; in curt expressions, μὴ τριβὰς ἔτι (i.e. ποιεῖσθε) [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; μή μοι σύ

**none of that** to me! [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; μή μοι πρόφασιν

**no** excuses! [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** B**) in DEPENDENT clauses:

** B.1**) with Final Conjs, ἵνα μή [

Refs 8th c.BC+],

**that so**, ὅπως ἂν. μηδέ [

Refs 8th c.BC+]; but

** B.1.b**) μή alone, ={ἵνα μή},

**lest**, ἀπόστιχε μή τινοήσῃ Ἥρη [

Refs 8th c.BC+]:

*future* *indicative* and

*aorist* *subjunctive* in consecutive clauses, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** B.2**) in the protasis of conditional sentences, see at {εἰ} (for the exceptions see at {οὐ}), and with temporal conjunctions used conditionally, see at {ἐπειδάν, ὅταν, ὅτε}, etc.

** B.2.b**) ὅτι μή

**except**, ὅτι μὴ Χῖοι μοῦνοι [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; ὅσα μὴ ἀποβαίνοντες

**provided only that** they did

**not** disembark, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** B.3**) in later Gr, with causal Conjs, ὁ μὴ πιστεύων ἤδη κέκριται, ὅτι μὴ πεπίστευκεν [

NT+2nd c.AD+]

**that**, ὅτι μὴ ἐστὶν ἐπίπεδος οὕτως ἂν καταμάθοιμεν [

Refs 2nd c.AD+]

** B.4**) in

*relative* clauses, which imply a condition or generality, ὃς δὲ μὴ εἶδέ κω τὴν κανναβίδα

**whoever**, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; ὃ μὴ κελεύσει (perhaps κελεύσαι) Ζεύς

**such a thing as**, [

Refs 4th c.BC+]; λέγονθ᾽ ἃ μὴ δεῖ

**such things as** one ought

**not**, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]: frequently with

*subjunctive*, ᾧ μὴ ἄλλοι ἀοσσητῆρες ἔωσιν [

Refs 8th c.BC+]

** B.5**) with

*infinitive*,

** B.5.a**) regularlyfrom Homer on, except after Verbs of saying and thinking (but see below c): after ὥστε or ὡς, ὥστε μὴ φρονεῖν [

Refs 4th c.BC+]: always when the

*infinitive* takes the

*Article*, τὸ μὴ προμαθεῖν [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** B.5.b**) by an apparent pleonasm after Verbs of negative result signifying to

**forbid, deny**, and the like, ὁ δ᾽ ἀναίνετο μηδὲν ἑλέσθαι [

Refs 8th c.BC+] (μηδέν); ἀντιλέγειν [

Refs 5th c.BC+] (μηδέ); ἀπαγορεύειν [

Refs 5th c.BC+] (μηδέ); ἀποτρέπεσθαι [

Refs] (μηδέν); ἀρνεῖσθαι, ἔξαρνος εἶναι, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; παύειν (where the

*participle* is more frequently) [

Refs 5th c.BC+]: in these cases the

*Article* frequently precedes μή, τὸ δὲ μὴ λεηλατῆσαι. ἔσχε τόδε [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; ἐξομῇ τὸ μὴ εἰδένα; [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; εἴργειν τὸ μή. [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; ἐμποδὼν γίγνεσθαι τοῦ μή. [

Refs]

** B.5.c**) after Verbs of saying and thinking which involve an action of will, as in those signifying to

**swear, aver, believe**, and the like; so after ὄμνυμι, [

Refs 8th c.BC+]: occasionally with other Verbs, φημί [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; λέγω, προλέγω, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; πάντες ἐροῦσι μή. [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; νομίζω[

Refs 5th c.BC+]: very frequently in later Gr, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** B.6**) with the

*participle*, when it can be resolved into a conditional clause, μὴ ἐνείκας, = {εἰ μὴ ἤνεικε}, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; μὴ θέλων, ={εἰ μὴ θέλεις}, [

Refs 4th c.BC+]; μὴ δολώσαντος θεοῦ, ={εἰ μὴ ἐδόλωσε}, [

Refs]; μὴ δρῶν, ={εἰ μὴ δρῴην}, [

Refs 5th c.BC+], =

**ut qui nihil sciam**, [

Refs]; τίς πρὸς ἀνδρὸς μὴ βλέποντος ἄρκεσι;

**one who** sees

**not**, [

Refs]: in this

*signification* frequently with the

*Article*, ὁ μὴ λεύσσων [

Refs 5th c.BC+]: with causal significance, μὴ παρὼν θαυμάζεται [

Refs 5th c.BC+]: very frequently in later Greek, [

Refs 1st c.AD+]: occasionally after Verbs of knowing and showing, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** B.7**) with

*Substantives*,

*adjectives*, and

*adverbs* used generically, with or without

*Article*, τὰ μὴ δίκαια [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; ἡ μὴ 'μπειρία, ={τὸ μὴ ἔχειν ἐμπειρίαν},

**want of** experience, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; δῆμον καὶ μὴ δῆμον[

Refs 4th c.BC+]

** B.8**) after Verbs expressing

**fear** or

**apprehension** (compare μὴ οὐ):

** B.8.a**) when the thing feared is

*future*, mostly with

*subjunctive*: with

*present* *subjunctive*, δεινῶς ἀθυμῶ μὴ βλέπων ὁ μάντις ᾖ

**shall proveto be**, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]: more frequently with

*aorist*, δείδοικα. μή σε παρείπῃ [

Refs 8th c.BC+]: with

*perfect*,

**shall prove to have been**, δέδοικα μὴ περαιτέρω πεπραγμέν᾽ ᾖ μοι [

Refs 5th c.BC+]: less frequently with

*future* *indicative*, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]: with

*optative* according to the sequence of moods and tenses:

*present* *optative*, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]:

*aorist*, [

Refs 8th c.BC+]:

*perfect*, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]: with

*future* *optative* in oratio obliqua, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

**vect.**4.41.

** B.8.b**) when the action is

*present* or past, the

*indicative* is used, εἰσόρα μὴ σκῆψιν οὐκ οὖσαν τίθης [

Refs 8th c.BC+]

** B.8.c**) with

*indicative* and

*subjunctive* in consecutive clauses, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** C**) in QUESTIONS:

** C.I**) direct questions,

** C.I.1**) with

*indicative*, where aneg. answer is anticipated (but more generally in [

Refs 8th c.BC+]; μή σοι δοκοῦμεν; [

Refs 5th c.BC+] (μηδέ) follows οὐ, see at {οὐ μή}.

** C.I.1.b**) in other questions, τί μὴ ποιήσ; what am I

**not** to do? [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; τί μ; why

**not**? [

Refs]; compare μήν

** C.I.2**) with

*subjunctive*, when the speaker deliberates about a

*negative* action, μὴ οὕτω φῶμε; [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; ὁ τοιοῦτος μὴ δῷ δίκη; [

Refs 4th c.BC+]; πῶς μὴ φῶμε; [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; how can a man

**help being** excited when he speaks? [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** C.II**) indirect questions, frequently with Verbs implying

**fear** and

**apprehension** [

Refs 8th c.BC+]; also σκοπεῖσθαι πῶς ἂν μή. [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; later in simple indirect questions, ἐπυνθάνετο μὴ ἔγνω [

Refs 2nd c.AD+]

** C.II.2**) in questions introduced by εἰ, ἤρετό με. εἰ μὴ μέμνημαι [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; εἴτε. εἴτε μή, εἰ. ἢ οὔ, εἰ. ἢ μή without difference of meaning between μή and οὐ, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** D**) POSITION of μή. When the

*negative* extends its power over the whole clause, μή properly precedes the Verb. When its force is limited to single words, it precedes those words. But Poets sometimes put μή after the Verb, ὄλοιο μή πω [

Refs 5th c.BC+]; φράσῃς. μὴ πέρα[

Refs]

** D.2**) μή is sometimes repeated, μή, μή καλέσῃς [

Refs 5th c.BC+]

** E**) PROSODY: in Trag. μή may be joined by synizesis with a following ει or ου, μὴ οὐ, μὴ εἰδέναι, [

Refs 5th c.BC+]: initial ε after μή is cut off by aphaeresis, μὴ 'πὁθουν [

Refs] followed by α is sometimes written μἀ. (see. μὴ ἀλλά, etc.); sometimes separately, μὴ ἀδικεῖν [

Refs 4th c.BC+]

** F**) μή in COMPOSITION (joined with other words), as μὴ ἀλλά, μὴ γάρ, μὴ οὐ, μὴ ὅπως or ὅτι, μή ποτε, etc, will be found in alphabetical order.